Cut off are the deaf and those who cannot sense.

Now, for contrast, we will skip over hundreds of years to Socio-Biogenetic Theory as described by Lumsen and Wilson in Promethean Fire. Here, there is no soul seeking its freedom from material reality. The soul is material and is the result of the interactions of the brain, hormones, and the rest of the body. Plato's chariot still seems to be there though, but now the struggle is between a person's inherited genetic desires and the higher cultural conventions. Lumsen and Wilson are less moralistic than Plato; however, a bit of judgment comes in with the implication that newer is better. It allows the possibility that a person can have a unique effect on his/her culture and its values, but s/he has no way to escape the influences of the genes and culture that made her/him. The scariest part of Promethean Fire is when it suggests that someday we may trust experts in Ethics who would work with Genetic Engineers to help improve the race.1 I am afraid that that situation would limit the freedom of individuals to choose what is ethical for themselves. But, I suppose, in the ideal world of the future, any "expert" in Ethics would know just how much freedom is ethical. Today, there are many politicians who seek to enforce their own cultural values by limiting the freedoms of others in ways that seem to me unethical.

1 Lumsden, Charles J. and Edward O. Wilson. Promethean Fire; Harvard University Press; 1983.

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